We have been landscaping with the usual suspects for a hundred years and these exotic species have been bred, cloned, and “refined” by Big Horticulture. As a result, we know fairly well how these plants will perform in the landscape. With native plants, however, we have only been landscaping with these for the past decade or so, aside from some early adopters. Due to our relative short time using natives in the landscape, they are not as predictable as exotics from time to time. Therefore, you should use the following plant lists as a general guide for how they might perform.

Key to Terms

Light:  F = full, P = part sun / part shade, S = shade

Moisture: W = wet, M = medium, D = dry

Soil: S = sand, L = loam, C = clay, G = gravel, M = muck

Wildflowers

Botanical Name Common Name Light Moisture Soil Height Flower Color Bloom
Actaea pachypoda Doll’s Eyes PS M SLC 18 White M
Actaea rubra Red Baneberry PS M SLC 18 White M
Agastache nepetoides Yellow Giant Hyssop PS WM L 36 Yellow JAS
Ageratina altissima White Snakeroot FP M L 24 White JASO
Allium cernuum Nodding Onion FP M SLC 18 Purple JA
Anemone virginiana Tall Thimbleweed FPS M SL 36 White JJA
Antennaria howellii Pussytoes F MD 10 White AMJ
Apocynum cannabinum Indian Hemp F M SL 42 White JJA
Aquilegia canadensis Columbine FPS MD SL 24 Red AMJ
Aralia racemosa Spikenard FPS M SLC 54 White JJA
Arisaema dracontium Green Dragon PS WM SL 24 Green MJ
Arisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the-Pulpit PS M SL 24 Green MJ
Asarum canadense Wild Ginger S M SLC 6 Red AMJ
Asclepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed F WM SLC 48 Red JJA
Asclepias purpurpascens Purple Milkweed FP M SLC 36 Purple JJ
Asclepias sullivantii Sullivant’s Milkweed F M L 30 Pink JJ
Asclepias syriaca Common Milkweed FP MD SLC 36 Purple JJA
Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly Weed FP MD SL 24 Orange JJA
Asclepias verticillata Whorled Milkweed FP MD SC 24 White JAS
Baptisia alba White Wild Indigo FP MD SLC 48 White JJ
Baptisia australis Blue Wild Indigo FP M SLC 48 Blue MJJ
Baptisia bracteata Cream Wild Indigo FP MD SL 24 Cream MJ
Baptisia tinctoria Sm Yellow Wild Indigo FP MD SL 24 Yellow JJA
Blephilia ciliata Downy Wood Mint FP MD SL 24 Purple JJ
Boltonia asteroides False Aster FP W SLC 48 White ASO
Brickellia eupatorioides False Boneset FP D C 36 Cream AS
Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold FPS W 18 Yellow AMJ
Campanula rotundifolia Harebell FP D SG 12 Purple JJAS
Campanulastrum americanum Tall Bellflower PS M SLC 60 Blue JASO
Chelone glabra Turtlehead F W SLC 60 Cream JAS
Conoclinium coelestinum Mistflower P M SLC 24 Blue SO
Coreopsis lanceolata Lanceleaf Coreopsis F D SLC 12 Yellow JJ
Coreopsis palmata Prairie Coreopsis FP MD SL 24 Yellow JJA
Dalea purpurea Purple Prairie Clover FP MD SLC 24 Purple JAS
Doellingeria umbellata Tall Flat-Top Aster FP WM 36 White AS
Echinacea pallida Pale Purple Coneflower FP MD SLC 36 Pink JJ
Echinacea purpurea Purple Coneflower FP M SLC 48 Purple JAS
Eryngium yuccifolium Rattlesnake Master F M SLC 48 White JAS
Eupatorium perfoliatum Boneset FP W SLC 48 White JAS
Euphorbia corollata Flowering Spurge FP MD 36 White JJA
Eurybia macrophylla Big-leaved Aster FPS MD SLC 12 White ASO
Eutrochium fistulosum Hollow Joe Pye Weed FPS M SLC 72 Purple JAS
Eutrochium maculatum Joe Pye Weed FP W SLC 60 Pink JJA
Eutrochium purpureum Sweet Joe Pye Weed PS M SLC 84 Pink JAS
Filipendula rubra Queen of the Prairie F W SLC 60 Pink JJA
Fragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry FPS WM 9 White MJ
Gentiana andrewsii Bottle Gentian FP M SLC 24 Blue ASO
Geranium maculatum Wild Geranium FPS M SL 12 Purple AMJJ
Geum triflorum Prairie Smoke FP MD SLC 6 Red AMJ
Helenium autumnale Sneezeweed FP W SLC 48 Yellow ASO
Helianthus divaricatus Woodland Sunflower P MD SLC 60 Yellow JAS
Helianthus giganteus Tall Sunflower FP M 78 Yellow ASO
Helianthus pauciflorus Stiff Sunflower F D 60 Yellow JAS
Heracleum maximum Cow Parship FP WM SLC 66 White JJ
Heuchera americana Alum Root PS M SL 18 Green MJ
Heuchera richardsonii Prairie Alumroot FP MD SL 24 Green JJ
Hibiscus moscheutos Swamp Rose Mallow FP W SLC 60 White JAS
Hydrophyllum virginianum Virginia Waterleaf PS WM 24 White MJ
Iris virginica Southern Blue Flag FP WM SLC 24 Blue MJJ
Liatris aspera Button Blazing Star FP MD SL 36 Purple JASO
Liatris cylindracea Dwarf Blazing Star FP D SL 12 Purple JASO
Liatris spicata Marsh Blazing Star FP M SLC 60 Purple JAS
Lilium michiganense Michigan Lily FP M L 60 Orange JJA
Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal Flower FP W SLC 48 Red JAS
Lobelia siphilitica Great Blue Lobelia FP WM SLC 36 Blue JASO
Lobelia spicata Pale Spiked Lobelia FP M 24 Purple MJJA
Lupinus perennis Wild Lupine FP D S 24 Purple MJJ
Lysimachia ciliata Fringed Loosestrife FPS M 24 Yellow JJA
Maianthemum racemosum False Solomon Seal PS M SLC 18 White MJ
Maianthemum stellatum Starry Solomon Seal FP WMD SL 18 White MJJ
Mertensia virginica Virginia Bluebells PS M SLC 24 Blue AM
Mimulus ringens Monkey Flower FP W SLC 24 Purple JJAS
Monarda didyma Scarlet Beebalm FP M LC 36 Red JAS
Monarda fistulosa Wild Bergamot FP MD SLC 48 Purple JAS
Monarda punctata Horsemint F D SG 24 Purple JAS
Nuphar advena Yellow Pond Lily FP A, ED, ES 12 Yellow MJJAS
Nymphaea odorata White Water Lily FP A, ED, ES SLCM 12 White MJJAS
Oenothera biennis Common Evening Primrose F MD S 60 Yellow JJAS
Oligoneuron ohioense Ohio Goldenrod F WM SLC 36 Yellow JAS
Oligoneuron ridellii Riddell’s Goldenrod F WM LC 36 Yellow ASO
Oligoneuron rigidum Stiff Goldenrod FP MD SLC 48 Yellow ASO
Packera aurea Golden Ragwort FPS WM L 24 Yellow AM
Packera obovata Round-Leaved Ragwort FP MD 30 Yellow AMJ
Penstemon digitalis Foxglove Beardtongue FPS M SLC 48 White JJ
Penstemon hirsutus Hairy Beardtongue F MD 18 Purple MJ
Phlox divaricata Woodland Phlox PS WM SLC 12 Lavendar M
Phlox maculata Wild Sweet William FP M LC 36 Pink JJA
Physostegia virginiana Obedient Plant FP WM SLC 48 Pink AS
Polemonium reptans Jacob’s Ladder FPS M L 12 Blue AMJJ
Polygonatum biflorum Solomon’s Seal PS M SLC 36 Green MJ
Pontederia cordata Pickerel Weed FP W SLC 36 Purple JJAS
Potentilla simplex Common Cinquefoil FPS MD 12 Yellow MJ
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Slender Mountain Mint FP M LC 24 White JJAS
Pycnanthemum virginianum Mountain Mint FP WM LC 36 White JJAS
Ratibida pinnata Yellow Coneflower FP M SLC 60 Yellow JAS
Rudbeckia fulgida Orange Coneflower FP M LC 36 Yellow JAS
Rudbeckia hirta Black-eyed Susan FP MD SLC 24 Yellow JJASO
Rudbeckia laciniata Wild Golden Glow FPS M SLC 84 Yellow JASO
Rudbeckia triloba Brown-eyed Susan FP M SL 60 Yellow ASO
Ruellia humilis Wild Petunia F MD SL 12 Purple JJA
Sagittaria latifolia Arrowhead FP ED, ES, W 36 White JJASO
Sanguinaria canadensis Bloodroot PS M 12 White Apr
Saururus cernuus Lizard’s Tail PS M 36 White JJA
Scutellaria incana Downy Skullcap P MD SLC 36 Blue JJAS
Scutellaria lateriflora Mad-Dog Skullcap FP WM 30 Blue JJAS
Sedum ternatum Wild Stonecrop PS M SL 6 White MJ
Senna hebecarpa Wild Senna FP M SLC 60 Yellow JA
Silphium integrifolium Rosin Weed F MD SLC 60 Yellow JAS
Silphium laciniatum Compass Plant FP MD SLC 96 Yellow JJAS
Silphium perfoliatum Cup Plant FP M SLC 96 Yellow JAS
Silphium terebinthinaceum Prairie Dock FP M SLC 108 Yellow JAS
Sisyrinchium angustifolium Blue-Eyed Grass FP M 12 Blue MJ
Sium suave Tall Water Parsnip F ES, W 48 White JAS
Solidago caesia Blue Stemmed Goldenrod FP M LC 30 Yellow AS
Solidago nemoralis Old Field Goldenrod FP D SLC 24 Yellow ASO
Solidago speciosa Showy Goldenrod FP MD SLC 36 Yellow ASO
Symphyotrichum cordifolium Heart-leaved Aster PS M SLC 36 Blue SO
Symphyotrichum laeve Smooth Aster F MD SLC 36 Lavendar ASO
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum Calico Aster FP M SLC 24 White ASO
Symphyotrichum novae-angliae New England Aster FP WM SLC 48 Purple ASO
Symphyotrichum oblongifolium Aromatic Aster FP D SGLC 24 Purple ASO
Symphyotrichum oolentangiense Sky Blue Aster FP MD SL 36 Blue ASO
Symphyotrichum shortii Short’s Aster PS M L 36 Blue ASO
Tiarella cordifolia Foamflower PS M 12 White M
Tradescantia ohiensis Ohio Spiderwort FP MD SL 36 Blue AMJ
Verbena hastata Blue Vervain FP WM SLC 60 Blue JAS
Verbena stricta Hoary Vervain FP D SL 24 Blue JJAS
Vernonia missurica Missouri Ironweed F M LC 60 Purple JASO
Veronicastrum virginicum Culver’s Root FP M SLC 60 White JJA
Zizia aurea Golden Alexanders FP M SLC 36 Yellow AMJ

Grasses, Sedges, and Rushes

Botanical Name Common Name Light Moisture Soil Height Flower Color Bloom
Acorus americanus Sweet Flag F W SLC 36 Green JJ
Andropogon gerardii Big Bluestem FP MD SLC 84 Green JA
Bolboschoenus fluviatilis River Bulrush F ED, ES, W 60 Green MJJ
Bouteloua curtipendula Side-oats Grama FP MD SLC 24 Red AS
Calamagrostis canadensis Blue Joint Grass FP WM 48 Green J
Carex bicknelli Bicknell’s Sedge FP WM SLC 30 Green MJ
Carex brevior Plains Oval Sedge FPS MD S 12 Green AM
Carex comosa Bristly Sedge F W SLC 24 Green MJ
Carex crinita Fringed Sedge FPS W 36 Green M
Carex grayi Common Bur Sedge FPS WM 36 Green MJ
Carex hystericina Porcupine Sedge F W SLC 36 Green MJ
Carex lupulina Common Hop Sedge FPS W 36 Green MJ
Carex lurida Sallow Sedge FPS W SLC 30 Green
Carex muskingumensis Palm Sedge FP M SLC 30 Green MJ
Carex normalis Spreading Oval Sedge FPS M 36 Green
Carex pensylvanica Common Oak Sedge FPS MD SL 6 Green AM
Carex prairea Fen Panicled Sedge F W 36 Green
Carex scoparia Lance-fruited Oval Sedge F WM S 24 Green
Carex sprengelii Long-beaked Sedge FP M SLC 24 Green AM
Carex stipata Awl Fruited Sedge FP WM SLC 30 Green M
Carex stricta Common Sedge FP W 36 Green MJ
Carex vulpinoidea Brown Fox Sedge FP WM SLC 36 Green MJ
Chasmanthium latifolium River Oats FPS M SLC 36 Green
Elymus canadensis Canada Wild Rye FP MD SLC 60 Green JJA
Elymus hystrix Bottlebrush Grass PS M SLC 36 Green JA
Elymus riparius Riverbank Wild Rye PS M SLC 48 Green JA
Elymus villosus Silky Wild Rye PS M SLC 36 Green JA
Elymus virginicus Virginia Wild Rye FP M SLC 36 Green J
Eragrostis spectabilis Purple Love Grass FP D SG 24 Purple JJ
Juncus effusus Common Rush F WM SLC 36 Green J
Juncus torreyi Torrey’s Rush F M 12 Green JJ
Koeleria macrantha June Grass FP D SG 24 Green MJ
Panicum virgatum Switch Grass FP MD SLC 48 Green JA
Schizachyrium scoparium Little Bluestem FP MD SL 36 Green Aug
Schoenoplectus pungens Three Square Rush F ES, W 48 Green
Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani Great Bulrush F ED, ES, W 72 Green MJJ
Scirpus atrovirens Dark Green Bulrush F ED, ES, W SCM 60 Green JJ
Scirpus cyperinus Wool Grass F W M 60 Green JJA
Sorghastrum nutans Indian Grass FP MD SLC 60 Yellow AS
Sporobolus heterolepis Northern Dropseed FP MD SLC 36 Green AS

Shrubs

Botanical Name Common Name Light Moisture Soil Height Flower Color Bloom
Alnus incana Speckled Alder FP WM LC 180 Brown MAM
Amelanchier arborea Serviceberry FP M LC 240 White AM
Amorpha canescens Lead Plant FP MD SLC 36 Purple JJA
Aronia prunifolia Black Chokeberry FP WM L 48 White J
Betula pumila Bog Birch FP WM 96 Brown MJ
Ceanothus americanus New Jersey Tea FP MD SL 36 White JJA
Celtis tenuifolia Dwarf Hackberry FP M S 144 Green May
Cephalanthus occidentalis Buttonbush FP W SLC 180 White JJA
Cercis canadensis Redbud FP M LC 240 Pink May
Cornus alternifolia Alternate Leaf Dogwood FP M LC 216 White MJ
Cornus amomum Silky Dogwood FP WM SLC 120 White MJJ
Cornus foemina Gray Dogwood FP MD 84 White MJ
Cornus rugosa Round-Leaved Dogwood FP MD S 84 White MJ
Cornus sericea Red Osier Dogwood P WM SLC 180 White JJA
Corylus americana American Hazelnut FP MD LC 120 Yellow AM
Dasiphora fruticosa Shrubby Cinquiefoil FP M SLC 36 Yellow JJAS
Diervilla lonicera Bush Honeysuckle FP MD SL 24 Yellow J
Dirca palustris Leatherwood PS M L 48 Yellow AM
Euonymus obovatus Running Strawberry Bush P MD SL 18 Green, Yellow AM
Hamamelis virginiana Witch Hazel FP M SLC 192 Yellow SON
Hypericum kalmianum Kalm St. John’s Wort FP M SL 36 Yellow JJA
Hypericum prolificum Shrubby St. John’s Wort FP M SLC 36 Yellow JJAS
Ilex verticillata Michigan Holly FP WM SLC 96 White J
Juniperus communis Common Juniper F MD SLC 42
Juniperus horizontalis Creeping Juniper FP MD SLG 12
Lindera benzoin Spicebush PS M LC 84 Yellow AM
Physocarpus opulifolius Ninebark FP M SLC 96 White J
Prunus pumila Sand Cherry F D S 48 White MJ
Prunus virginiana Choke Cherry FP M SLC 240 White MJ
Rhus aromatica Fragrant Sumac FP M SLC 60 Yellow MJ
Rhus copallina Winged Sumac F D SL 120 Yellow J
Ribes americanum Wild Black Currant FP WM 36 Yellow AM
Ribes cynosbati Prickly Gooseberry P MD L 48 Green, Yellow AMJ
Rosa carolina Pasture Rose FP MD SL 36 Pink JJ
Rosa palustris Swamp Rose FPS ES, W L 60 Red JJ
Rosa setigera Michigan Rose FP M SLC 106 Pink JA
Salix humilis Prairie Willow F MD 48 Yellow Apr
Sambucus canadensis American Elder FP WM SLC 96 White JJ
Sambucus racemosa Red-Berried Elder FP M 108 White MJ
Spiraea alba Meadowsweet FP W SLC 48 White JJAS
Spiraea tomentosa Steeplebush FP M SLC 36 Pink JAS
Viburnum acerifolium Mapleleaf Viburnum FP MD LC 54 White J
Viburnum dentatum Arrowwood Viburnum FP M LC 96 White MJ
Viburnum lentago Nannyberry FP WM L 180 White MJ
Viburnum rafinesqueanum Downy Arrow Wood PS MD SL 54 White MJ
Zanthoxylum americanum Prickly Ash FP M L 180 Green AM

Ferns

Botanical Name Common Name Light Moisture Soil Height Flower Color Bloom
Adiantum pedatum Maidenhair Fern PS WM SLC 12 Green
Asplenium platyneuron Ebony Spleenwort PS M SL 12 Green
Cystopteris bulbifera Bublet Fern PS WM 30 Green
Deparia acrostichoides Silvery Spleenwort S M 30 Green
Dryopteris spinulosa Wood Fern PS WM 30 Green
Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive Fern FPS W SLC 36 Green

Vines

Botanical Name Common Name Light Moisture Soil Height Flower Color Bloom
Clematis virginiana Virgin’s Bower FP M SLC 120 White AS
Dioscorea villosa Wild Yam FP M 180 White JJ
Menispermum canadense Moonseed FPS M Green JJ
Parthenocissus quinquefolia Virginia Creeper FPS WMD Green JA

Cactus

Yes, there is a native cactus.

Botanical Name Common Name Light Moisture Soil Height Flower Color Bloom
Opuntia humifusa Prickly Pear F D S 12 Yellow J